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Monday, July 20 • 7:00pm - 8:00pm
P110: Synchronization and resilience in the Kuramoto white matter network model with adaptive state-dependent delays

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Daniel Park, Jeremie Lefebvre

Myelin sheaths around axonal lengths are formed by mature oligodendrocytes, and play a critical part in regulating signal transmission in the nervous system. Contrary to traditional assumptions, recent experiments have revealed that myelin remodels itself in an activity-dependent way, during both developmental stages and well into adulthood in mammalian subjects. Indeed, it has shown that myelin structure is affected by extrinsic factors such as one's social environment and intensified learning activity. As a result, axonal conduction delays continuously adjust in order to regulate the timing of neural signals propagating between different brain regions. While there is strong empirical support for such phenomena, the plasticity mechanism has yet to be extensively modeled in neurocomputational fields. As a preliminary step, we incorporate adaptive myelination in the form of state-dependent delays into neural network models, and analyze how it consequently alters its dynamics. In particular, we ask what role myelin plasticity plays in brain synchrony, which is a fundamental element of neurological function. Brain synchrony is simplistically represented in coupled phase-oscillator models such as the Kuramoto network model. As a prototype, we equip the Kuramoto model with a distribution of variable delays governed by a plasticity rule with phase difference gain that allows the delays and oscillatory phases to evolve over time with mutually dependent dynamics. We analyzed the equilibria and stability of this system, and applied our results to large dimensional networks. Our joint mathematical and numerical analysis demonstrates that plastic delays act as a stabilizing mechanism promoting the network's ability to maintain synchronous activity. At a high-dimensional network level, our work also shows that global synchronization is more resilient to perturbations and injury towards network architecture. Specifically, our conducted numerical experiments imply that plastic delays play a positive role in improving a large-dimensional system's resilience in achieving synchrony from a sustained injury. Our results provide key insights about the analysis and potential significance of activity-dependent myelination in large-scale brain synchrony.


Zoom meeting details:

Time: Jul 20, 2020 01:00 PM Pacific Time (US and Canada)

Join Zoom Meeting: https://us04web.zoom.us/j/79681368783?pwd=ZVpFQjlHVFZ6ZHNEYkV2MzEwbTFVdz09

Speakers
DP

Daniel Park

University of Toronto



Monday July 20, 2020 7:00pm - 8:00pm CEST
Slot 18