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Monday, July 20 • 7:00pm - 8:00pm
P121: Avalanches and emergent activity patterns in simulated mouse primary motor cortex

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Donald Doherty, Salvador Dura-Burnal, William W Lytton

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Avalanches display non-Poisson distributions of correlated neuronal activity that may play a significant role in signal processing. The phenomenon appears robust but mechanisms remain unknown due to an inability to gather large sample sizes, and difficulties in identifying neuron morphology, biophysics, and connections underlying avalanche dynamics. We set out to understand the relationship between power-law activity patterns, their values, and the neural responses observed from every neuron across different layers, cell populations, and the entire cortical column using a detailed M1 model with 15 neuron types that simulated the full-depth of a 300μm diameter column with 10,073 neurons and ~18e6 connections. Self-organized and self-sustained activity from our simulations have power-law values of -1.51 for avalanche size and -1.98 for duration distributions, which are in the range noted in both in vitro and in vivo neural avalanche preparations reported by Beggs and Plentz (2003). We applied a 0.57 nA, 100 ms stimulus across 40 μm in diameter and full column depth at each of 49 gridded locations (40 μm) across the pia surface of our 400 μm diameter cylindrical cortical column. Stimuli applied to 4 locations (8.2%) produced no sustained responses. Self-sustained activity was seen in the other 45 locations, which always included activity in IT5B or IT5B and IT6. In 6 locations activity was restricted to IT5B or IT5B/IT6 alone (avalanche size: ~-2.8). Intermittent spread of activity from IT5B/IT6 across other neuron types and layers was seen in 24 locations (avalanche size: ~-2.0). In 15 locations, frequent spread of activity to other neuron types and layers was observed (avalanche size: ~-1.5). Avalanches were defined using binned spiking activity (1 ms bins). Each avalanche was composed of adjacent bins filled with one or more action potentials, preceded and followed by at least one empty bin. A prolonged 10 minute M1 simulation with different connectivity produced 15,579 avalanches during sustained activity after the initial 100 ms stimulation. Again, IT5B/IT6 activity was constant and punctuated by more widespread activity. Three distinct patterns of activity spontaneously recurred and could be characterized by delta, beta, or gamma frequency dominance. All large-scale avalanches were composed of 1 or a combination of these 3 recognizable patterns. Between the large-scale avalanches we saw three patterns of activity: 1) continuous IT5B and IT6 neuron activity, 2) vigorous layer 5 and IT6 activity, or 3) vigorous layer 5 and IT6 activity that transitioned to continuous IT5B and IT6 activity. Since cortical column activity with just IT5B and IT6 activity showed little correlation (very steep and narrow distributions of avalanche sizes and durations), we hypothesize that the addition of avalanches with layer 5 and IT6 activity (activity patterns 2 and 3 above) result in more correlated activity and power-law values closer to -1.51 and -1.98 for size and duration respectively. In conclusion, the increase in correlated activity among neuronal components parallels the emergence of clearly identifiable activity patterns across time and cortical layers and may generate rhythmic activity.


Speakers
avatar for Donald Doherty

Donald Doherty

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center



Monday July 20, 2020 7:00pm - 8:00pm CEST
Slot 06